apa benda HIRARC ini?
H – hazard
I – identification
R – Risk
A – Assessment
R – Risk
C – Control
dah dapat tak tangkap maksudnya? haiyyaaaa… maksudnya, kena buat pemeriksaan… tanda2 hazard dan penilaian risiko yang wujud di sesuatu kawasan itu. kemudian, barulah kena buat solution untuk mengawal risiko2 tersebut. hmmmm
apa? macam mana ni? saya tak tahu apa2 pun…
okay.. tenang.. tenang… . cuma perlu isi pada borang dan kena buat penelitian terperinci terhadap sesuatu ruang kerja. tapi penelitian pun perlu dibuat dengan tepat… segala elemen yg terdapat dalam ruang kerja itu.
owh.. kalau begitu borang kod apa yg perlu saya isi? tak sabar ni..
borang ini sebenarnya adalah borang yang disediakan oleh sesebuah jabatan atau syarikat tersebut. tiada kod tertentu secara rasmi. dan elemen di dalam borang ini juga adalah diwujudkan mengikut keperluan ruang2 tersebut.
tapi, penting sngat kah HIRARC ni?
hmmm… HIRARC ni sangat penting. sehinggakan perlu ada kursus khas untuk mempelajarinya. dan memerlukan ketelitian ketika melakukan proses ini. lebih kurang macam audit lah. tetapi lebih kepada kerja dan peralatan juga susunatur di dalamnya.. juga seluruh ruang kerja.
a. to identify all the factors that may cause harm to employees and others (the hazards);
b. to consider what the chances are of that harm actually be falling anyone in the circumstances of a particular case and the possible severity that could come from it (the risks); and
c. to enable employers to plan, introduce and monitor preventive measures to ensure that the risks are adequately controlled at all times.
Term And Definitions
i. Hazard means a source or a situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the environment or a combination of these.
ii. Hazard control means the process of implementing measures to reduce the risk associated with a hazard.
iii. Hierarchy of control means the established priority order for the types of measures to be used to control risks.
iv. Hazard identification means the identification of undesired events that lead to the materialisation of the hazard and the mechanism by which those undesired events could occur.
v. Risk means a combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event with specified period or in specified circumstances and the severity of injury or damage to the health of people, property, environment or any combination of these caused by the event.
vi Risk assessment means the process of evaluating the risks to safety and health arising from hazards at work.
vii. Risk management means the total procedure associated with identifying a hazard, assessing the risk, putting in place control measures, and reviewing the outcomes.
Apa itu RISIKO (RISK)?
Risk is something that we as individuals live with on a day-to-day basis. People are constantly making decisions based on risk. Simple decision in daily life such as driving, crossing the road and money investment all imply an acceptance risk. Risk is the combination of the likelihood and severity of a specified hazardous event occurring. In mathematical term,
risk can be calculated by the equation –
Risk = Likelihood x Severity
Likelihood is an event likely to occur within the specific period or in specified circumstances
Severity is outcome from an event such as severity of injury or health of people, or damage to property, or insult to environment, or any combination of those caused by the event.
Planning of HIRARC Activities
sebenarnya, aktiviti H IRARC ini mesti dirancang dan dikendalikan –
a. for situation –
i. where hazard appear to pose significant threat;
ii. uncertain whether existing controls are adequate; or/and
iii. before implementing corrective or preventive measures.
b. by organization intending to continuously improve OSH Management System.
It should be the duty of the employer to assign a trained personnel to lead a team of employees associated with one particular process or activity to conduct HIRARC.
Saya dah bersedia untuk melakukan aktiviti HIRARC ini… jom kita buat sekarang…!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Nanti dulu… sabar owkay. Sebenarnya aktiviti ini memerlukan beberapa proses tertentu. Proses ini memerlukan 4 langkah mudah:-
PERTAMA: Kenalpasti dulu aktiviti kerja yang dilakukan dan buat klasifikasi
Classify work activities in accordance with their similarity, such as –
i. geographical or physical areas within/outside premises;
ii. stages in production/service process;
iii. not too big e.g. building a car;
iv. not too small e.g. fixing a nut; or
v. defined task e.g. loading, packing, mixing, fixing the door.
KEDUA : kenalpasti hazard yang ada
The purpose of hazard identification is to highlight the critical operations of tasks, that is, those tasks posing significant risks to the health and safety of employees as well as highlighting those hazards pertaining to certain equipment due to energy sources, working conditions or activities performed. Hazards can be divided into three main groups,
a. health hazards,- An occupational health hazard is any agent that can cause illness to an individual. A
health hazard may produce serious and immediate (acute) affects, or may cause long-term (chronic) problems. All or part of the body may be affected. Someone with an occupational illness may not recognize the symptoms immediately. For example, noise-induced hearing loss is often difficult for the affected individual to detect until it is well advanced. Health hazards include chemicals (such as battery acid and solvents), biological hazards (such as bacteria, viruses, dusts and molds), physical agents (energy sources strong enough to harm the body, such as electric currents, heat, light, vibration, noise and radiation) and work design (ergonomic) hazards.
b. safety hazards, – A safety hazard is any force strong enough to cause injury, or damage to property. An injury caused by a safety hazard is usually obvious. For example, a worker may be badly cut. Safety hazards cause harm when workplace controls are not adequate. Some examples of safety hazards include, but are not limited to –
i. slipping/tripping hazards (such as wires run across floors);
ii. fire hazards (from flammable materials);
iii. moving parts of machinery, tools and equipment (such as pinch and nip points);
iv. work at height (such as work done on scaffolds);
v. ejection of material (such as from molding);
vi. pressure systems (such as steam boilers and pipes);
vii. vehicles (such as forklifts and trucks);
viii. lifting and other manual handling operations; and
ix. working alone.
c. environmental hazards.
An environmental hazard is a release to the environment that may cause harm or deleterious effects. An environmental release may not be obvious. For example, a worker who drains a glycol system and releases the liquid to a storm sewer may not be aware, of the effect on the environment. Environmental hazards cause harm when controls and work procedures are not followed.
KETIGA: melakukan risk assessment (analisis dan menganggar risiko dari setiap hazard yg dikenalpasti secara menganggar dan membuat pengiraan)
i. likelihood of occurrence, and
ii. severity of hazard;
KEEMPAT: menentukan sekiranya risk adalah tolerable dan samada memerlukan pengukuran pengawalan atau tidak
Agak susah nak tentukan hazard… boleh berikan teknik2 yang mudah untuk dapatkan maklumat?
Hazard identification technique
The employer shall develop a hazard identification and assessment methodology taking
into account the following documents and information –
i. any hazardous occurrence investigation reports;
ii. first aid records and minor injury records;
iii. work place health protection programs;
iv. any results of work place inspections;
v. any employee complaints and comments;
vi. any government or employer reports, studies and tests concerning the health and safety of employees;
vii. any reports made under the regulation of Occupational Safety and Health Act,1994
viii. the record of hazardous substances; and
ix. any other relevant information.
Bagaimana nak kira benda2 alah ini semua?
Analyze and estimate risk
Risk is the determination of likelihood and severity of the credible accident/event sequences in order to determine magnitude and to priorities identified hazards. It can be done by qualitative, quantitative or semi quantitative method.
1. A qualitative analysis uses words to describe the magnitude of potential severity and the likelihood that those severity will occur. These scales can be adapted or adjusted to suit the circumstances and different descriptions may be used for different risks. This method uses expert knowledge and experience to determine likelihood and severity category.
2. In semi-quantitative analysis, qualitative scales such as those described above are given values. The objective is to produce a more expanded ranking scale than is usually achieved in qualitative analysis, not to suggest realistic values for risk such as is attempted in quantitative analysis.
3. Quantitative analysis uses numerical values (rather than the descriptive scales used in qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis) for both severity and likelihood using data from a variety of sources such as past accident experience and from scientific research. Severity may be determined by modeling the outcomes of an event or set of events, or by extrapolation from experimental studies or past data. Severity may be expressed in terms of monetary, technical or human impact criteria, or any of the other criteria. The way in which severity and likelihood are expressed and the ways in which they are combined to provide a level of risk will vary according to the type of risk and the purpose for which the risk assessment output is to be used.
Bersambung ke episod HIRARC KE-2
*main source = credit to Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Malaysia