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Menara condong Pisa… history of leaning tower pisa

An icon of imperfect ingenuity, the Leaning Tower of Pisa (La Torre Pendente di Pisa) is a world-famous campanile, or bell tower, located in Pisa, Italy. Because of engineering errors, the tower does not stand perfectly upright, but instead tilts at a 5.5-degree angle.

Construction on the tower began in 1173 and was completed in 1360. Bonanno Pisano is thought to have originally designed the tower, but a succession of architects oversaw its construction over the amount of time it took to complete the project. Although the architects realized the design’s inherent flaws in the early phases of construction, they continued with the project. With each successive story added to the tower, adjustments were made to the design in an attempt to redistribute the weight of the building and set it upright. Despite their efforts, the pitch of the tower was never corrected and the building retained–and became famous for–its tilt.

Structural Statistics
The tower stands at 187 feet and has eight stories. It contains seven bells. Constructed of white marble, it weighs more than 14,000 tons. Its famed tilt originates from the building’s foundation; the soil on which is stands is incredibly soft and has been judged to be generally unsuitable for such construction.

Recent Restoration
In 1990, fearing that the tower was becoming increasingly unstable and would topple, the building was closed to the public for restoration. To stabilize the tower, a team of engineers corrected the tower’s tilt by 17 inches. To do so, lead counter-weights were placed in sections of the tower, steel cables were attached to its facade, and tons of earth were strategically removed from underneath its base in an effort to realign the tower. More than a decade and $25 million later, the tower reopened to the public in 2001.

Location
The Leaning Tower of Pisa is part of the larger Cathedral of Pisa complex (Piazza del Duomo), located within the Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles). The entire area, including the Leaning Tower of Pisa, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Menara Eiffel …. di Paris

hoh!!! romantik kan????

Sangat romantik kan?? jom buat rombongan cik kiah ker sana…

Menara ini merupakan contoh terbaik struktur baru yang dibina dengan prinsip kejuruteraan asas ‘moden’. Ia dibina oleh Alexandre Gustave Eiffil pada tahun 1889. Beliau menyedari pentingnya asas yang baik untuk menara ini untuk mengelakkan nasib yang sama seperti Menara Condong di Pisa, Itali. Sebelum menara tersebut dibina, Eiffel telah mencipta kaedah baru untuk penyiasatan tanah. Kaedah ini terdiri daripada memacu ke dalam tanah paip bergaris pusat 200mm yang diisi dengan udara termampat. Udara ini menghalang air bumi daripada masuk ke dalam tiub dan membolehkan sampel tanah berkualiti tinggi diambil. Berdasarkan kajian ke atas keadaan tanah ini, Eiffil telah berjaya mengenal pasti kawasan tanah lembut yang boleh mendatangkan masalah kepada menara yang hendak dibina, dan telah berjaya menempatkan keempat-empat kaki menara di atas asas yang sesuai di atas tanah yang kukuh.

what is foundation??? (bukan bedak asas hoh!!)

1. The supporting part of a structure; the foundation. (i.e.: footing/piling, pile cap, column stump )
Sub-structure will include ground beams, ground floor column and ground floor slab.
2. Structure who support the weight of the upper structure and applied loads.
3. Designed to transmit building load to the supportive soils or rock.
4. Foundation failure : collapse or excessive settlement of a building supporting structure resulting from soil movement.
5. Types of foundation include footings, piles and piers.

kat mana sebenarnya letaknya asas ni??

Design and selection of foundation depends on:
1. Total load of building
2. Nature and bearing capacity of soil

Causes of settlement are;
1. Deformation of soils causing by an imposed load
2. Volume changes of soil cause by seasonal conditions.
3. Mass movements of ground in an unstable areas.

Asas dibahagikan kepada dua kategori, iaitu asas cetek dan asas dalam

Asas cetek merupakan asas yang menghantar beban struktur kepada tanah berdekatan dengan permukaan bumi, generally where the founding depth (Df) is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m

Sementara asas dalam adalah asas yang menghantar beban struktur ke lapisan tanah yang lebih dalam, usually at depths >3 m below finished ground level

STRIP FOUNDATION

– Strip foundations are used to support a line of loads, either due to a load-bearing wall, or if a line of columns need supporting where column positions are so close that individual pad foundations would be inappropriate.

PAD FOUNDATION

Pad foundations are used to support an individual point load such as that due to a structural column. They may be circular, square or rectangular. They usually consist of a block or slab of uniform thickness, but they may be stepped or hunched if they are required to spread the load from a heavy column. Pad foundations are usually shallow, but deep pad foundations can also be used.

RAFT FOUNDATION

Raft foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the entire area of the structure. They are used when column loads or other structural loads are close together and individual pad foundations would interact.

PILE FOUNDATION

Structures place on top of the piles.
Piles + Pile Cap = Pile foundation
Function : Distributes load to the individual piles.
Pile Cap will connect the pile together and distributes the superstructure loads to the layer beneath.

– Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of the structure to the bearing ground located at some depth below ground surface

– The main components of the foundation are the pile cap and the piles

– Piles are long and slender members which transfer the load to deeper soil or rock of high bearing capacity avoiding shallow soil of low bearing capacity

– The main types of materials used for piles are Wood, steel and concrete

FUNGSI CERUCUK

1. – to transmit a foundation load to a solid ground
2. – to resist vertical, lateral and uplift load

Classifications of piles with respect to load transmission and functional behaviors

1. End Bearing Piles (point bearing piles)

– End bearing piles are those which terminate in hard, relatively impenetrable material such as rock or very dense sand and gravel.
– These piles transfer their load on to a firm stratum
– The pile behaves as an ordinary column and should be designed as such

2. Friction piles (cohesion piles )

– Friction piles obtain a greater part of their carrying capacity by skin friction or adhesion.
– This tends to occur when piles do not reach an impenetrable stratum .
– These piles transmit most of their load to the soil through skin friction

3. Combination of friction and cohesion piles

Classifications of piles with respect to type of material

1. Timber

2. Concrete

3. Steel

Walaupun kepentingan utk membina asas yang baik untuk sebarang binaan sudah dikenal pasti beribu tahun lamanya, namun disiplin kejuruteraan asas seperti mana yang diketahui dan dipelajari sekarang ini hanya wujud pada awal abad kesembilan puluhan. Rekabentuk awal asas ketika itu adalah semata-matanya berdasarkan pengalaman yang lepas serta pengetahuan am.

Contohnya

1. Dinding batu yang dibina di bandar New York pada awal tahun sembilan puluhan disokong di atas asas yang lebarnya 1.5 kali lebar dinding tersebut dan dibina di atas kerikil yang di mampat.

2. Menara Eiffel

3. Menara condong Pisa

Kini pengetahuan kita mengenai rekabentuk dan pembinaan asas adalah jauh lebih baik daripada apa yang ada seratus tahun dahulu. Kini kita boleh membina asas yang reliabel dengan penjimatan kos dan kapasiti yang tinggi untuk pelbagai jenis struktur moden.

Kejuruteraan asas moden bolehlah dikatakan sebagai pelbagai disiplin. Ianya merangkumi Kejuruteraan Struktur, Kejuruteraan Geoteknik dan Kejurutreraan Pembinaan.

P/S = kalau nak jadi penari ballet yang mahir.. perlukan kemahiran yang tinggi. maka, untuk dapatkan kemahiran…, perlu ada asas yang kuat dan kukuh dalam teknik ballet.

Hoh! kenapa citer bab penari ballet segala? okay…, sama juga dengan binaan. untuk membina bangunan ataupun jalan… empangan dan sebagainya.. asas perlulah stabil dan kukuh. (^_^) okay! Nampak tak kaitannya di situ. *cover cover… sila akui sekarang,ada kaitan antara penari ballet dengan binaan bangunan*. GTG now.. Bye!!!

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